1986 congress passed legislation mandating

At the same time these were signed, the rules and regulations for the , including provisions for Comprehensive Services, Centers for Independent Living, Independent Living Services for Older Blind Individuals and Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights; mandated that applicants for funds under provide assurance that individuals with disabilities would be employed, substantially involved in policy, and consulted on the direction and management of independent living centers; this major focus recognized that achievement of substantially gainful activity (employment) was not the only significant outcome that could be gained from the rehabilitation system and expanded the view of the person with needs that cut across the bureaucracy; also provided VR service grants to Native American tribes.

stipulated that rehabilitation services are to be provided by qualified personnel; defined and established supported employment as an acceptable goal; provided grants for special projects and demonstrations in supported employment; established a program to assist state agencies to develop and implement supported employment services; added rehabilitation engineering as a VR service.

While there are now civil rights protections, it is still evident that disability is not as definitive a category as race, gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation.

The following list, while not inclusive of all the laws, gives some indication as to how the concept of "providing vocational opportunities" has evolved into the concept of "equal rights and access." Included, too, are major sociological events related to legislation and disability rights.

provided an opportunity for soldiers to receive instruction to facilitate their return to civilian life; for the first time legislatively the country recognized its obligation to persons injured in service to their country.

It becomes more attainable, it seems, after individuals have experienced the sense of being powerful in ways meaningful to them" (Beatrice Wright, 1983).

The path of legislation benefitting those with disabilities has been a relatively short one for this country considering most of the legislation has occurred during the past century.

President Reagan signed the bill into law on October 8, 1986. Service delivery models can range from part day home-based to full day center-based, depending on the unique needs of a particular child. 99-457, the Congress is promising a substantial increase in federal funding for pre-school services.

Congress has enacted legislation to expand coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P. 94-142), to mandate a preschool program to serve children ages three through five, to establish a new Early Intervention State Grant Program for infants and toddlers from birth through age two, and to expand and improve various discretionary programs within the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) programs. 99-457) repeals the existing Pre-School Incentive Grant Program which in school year 1985-1986 reimbursed school systems with approximately 0 per children served between the ages of three and five years and replaces it with a Pre-School Grant Program. Pre-school services will generally be defined according to the requirements, rights, and protections under P. Since family services play an important role in preschool programming, instruction for parents, to the extent desired by the parents, is an appropriate provision within the child's IEP.

provided states with grants to achieve systems change so that assistive devices and services will be available to under served groups, viewing each child, adult, and older adult as entitled to equal access to opportunities achieved through assistive technology; one of the first laws to repeatedly drive home the mandate for consumer-responsive services and significant inclusion of persons with disabilities in planning, implementing and evaluating progress toward systems change.

Students at Gallaudet University go on strike and close the university in protest to the appointment of another non-Deaf university president.

reshaped the roles of the federal and state government in the rehabilitation program; established the basis for a working relationship between public and private rehabilitation and expanded the role of the state agency; established funding sources for (1) college and university training of rehabilitation professionals; (2) improvement and remodeling of rehabilitation facilities; and (3) research and demonstration grants; increased federal funding to states (3 federal dollars for each 2 dollars from the state); increased services to persons with mental retardation and mental illness through items (2) and (3) above, along with agency expansion and improvement grants.

expanded services to include person with socially handicapping conditions, such as alcoholism, lack of education, and prison records; expanded evaluation to determine individual eligibility for services where feasibility was not easily determined; allowed rehabilitation counselors to take more risks in serving persons with vocational handicaps, thereby serving more people with severe disabilities; established a National Commission on Architectural Barriers; deleted economic need as a general requirement for services; and increased federal match to 75%.

retained priority for blindness in the provision of products for the federal government and added people with severe handicaps as eligible for participation. (Note: Section 508 has not really taken affect until very recently eventhough it was originally part of this particular law).

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