In July 2006 Russia and Kazakhstan (Kazatomprom) signed three nuclear joint venture agreements totalling US$ 10 billion for new nuclear reactors, uranium production and enrichment.
The first JV with Atomstroyexport is JV Atomniye Stantsii for development and marketing of innovative small and medium-sized reactors, starting with OKBM's VBER-300 as baseline for Kazakh units.
Over 2001 to 2013 production rose from 2022 to about 22,550 tonnes U per year, making Kazakhstan the world's leading uranium producer.
Mine development has continued with a view to further increasing annual production by 2018, 23,400 t U being the target for 2015.
The government planned investment in electricity production and grid of $7.8 billion by 2015, and foresees $64 billion by 2030.
Future electricity demand will depend to some extent on the country’s role from 2019 in the Eurasian Economic Community energy market.
It announced in 2008 that it aims to supply 30% of the world uranium by 2015 (it produced 16% by 2013), and through joint ventures: 12% of uranium conversion market, 6% of enrichment, and 30% of the fuel fabrication market by then.
Prior to Kazatomprom’s establishment, other arrangements pertained for uranium development.
In 2015 capacity was 21 GWe with 17.5 GWe available, but maximum output was 12.5 GWe.
In 2012 the government's energy system development plan had 150 TWh/yr production in 2030, with 4.5% of this from nuclear and 10% from renewables.
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