Ghosan pussy

In addition, rhymes that are unique to any or many of the target cultures contribute to familiarising children with these by ‘reflect[ing] the target culture and provid[ing] students with an experience in common with native speakers’ (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2010, p.397), which helps promote open-mindedness in young learners.xi), should either be avoided or used as a stimulus for discussion. Sugar and spice And all that’s nice, That’s what little girls are made of. 116-117) In addition, teachers should exercise avoidance of subconsciously favouring one gender over the other by carefully planning which rhymes are to be used throughout a course and balancing the number of characters of both genders that are presented in both a positive and negative light.

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96-98), would stand in stark contrast to the above stated educational goal: Come when you’re called, Do as you’re bid, Shut the door after you, Never be chid. 159) Therefore, standards for success promoted by the rhymes should be observed, paying special attention to avoiding any implication of their complying with stereotypes of any kind.

This can be exemplified by the following rhyme, which stigmatizes boys for openly expressing disturbing emotions through crying, an activity stereotypically associated with the feminine domain: When Jacky’s a good boy, He shall have cakes and custard, But when he does nothing but cry, He shall have nothing but mustard. 283) The use of rhymes that reinforce gender-related stereotypes should be re-examined, and those that emphasize ‘the negative side of femininity for girls (fragility, timidity, obsession with appearance and with domesticity), and the negative side of masculinity for boys (aggression, insensitivity, rudeness, and a refusal to be helpful)’ (Davies, 2003, p.

The article argues for and develops criteria that can help teachers of young and very young learners select the rhymes suitable for language instruction in terms of their content, accompanying illustrations and language.

Thus, rhymes need to be considered from the point of view of the relevance of their content to the children’s world and their age appropriateness, and whether they provide material for encouragement of discussion and exploration of values, as well as the means for overcoming a variety of problems children may encounter in their daily lives.

In addition, they provide ample opportunities for recycling the language by offering a wide range of options for developing classroom activities to accompany them.

Nursery rhymes can be used as a valuable motivational tool for phonological and phonemic awareness instruction (Cremin, Bearne, Dombey & Lewis, 2009; Shin & Crandall, 2014), as they ‘help language learners acquire connected speech’ (Bland, 2013, p. They are considered to be especially useful for intonation and pronunciation [End of Page 27] practice ‘in a stress-timed language such as English because the rhythm forces [children] to put the stress in the right places and to observe the strong and weak forms’ (Reilly & Ward, 2003, p. Prosody and rhythm are frequent reasons for recommendation of nursery rhyme use in foreign language teaching, but surprisingly few empirical studies are available to support this practice in theory.‘the inability to distinguish one’s own view from the viewpoints of others’ (Hauser-Cram, Nugent, Thies & Travers, 2014, p. 403) Nevertheless, the same rhyme can successfully serve as encouragement of discussion on the topic of importance of actively listening to others with a group of older learners who need to learn about different ways of solving conflicts, for example. In order for nursery rhymes to be relevant to young learners, ‘understanding the meaning of the text and applying it to [their] own lives [End of Page 31] and experiences is the key’ (Horner & Ryf, 2007, p. English language lessons offer a fair amount of freedom to teachers in terms of the opportunity to include topics not covered in assigned textbooks. When choosing rhymes to use in a young learner classroom, teachers should pay attention to how well they lend themselves to the exploration of different values through their content.317), would have a hard time understanding the main point of the following rhyme: A wise old owl lived in an oak; The more he saw the less he spoke; The less he spoke the more he heard. Therefore, they possess great potential for teaching children how to overcome and resolve some of the problems they come across in their daily experiences, especially those connected with school social life. What a naughty boy was that, To try to drown poor pussy cat, Who never did him any harm, And killed the mice in his father’s barn. Power relations, for example, are a frequent issue in all of literature, and they play their role within the realm of nursery [End of Page 32] rhymes as well.Tongue twisters, riddles, proverbs, lullabies, clapping rhymes, finger rhymes, counting-out rhymes, alphabet rhymes, limericks and feature -naming rhymes all fall into the category of nursery rhymes, function as songs as well.They are ‘a common “ingredient” of various programs and are often included in students’ books used in English language teaching, especially at preschool and early school age’ (Prosic-Santovac, 2009a, p. [End of Page 26] Being in the public domain, the traditional corpus of Mother Goose nursery rhymes lends itself well to such utilization, and many of the rhymes are also frequently reprinted in new collections, in addition to being freely available on the internet, which is especially important for those EFL learning environments that do not have access to printed sources from English-speaking countries, as it provides accessible authentic material for use in classrooms, without the danger of copyright infringement.Similarly, rhymes can function as a prompt for the discussion about the attitude towards animal abuse: Ding, dong, bell, Pussy’s in the well. Furthermore, as one of the most prominent relationships in a child’s world is adult-child relationships, care should be taken over what aspects of this relationship are presented as a desirable model, especially if the caregivers’ goal is to raise competent and self-confident children that will grow into adults who are not submissive and can stand up for themselves and others in the world.

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