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There are several methods for generating parent males (P0s) for a mating from non- strains (1) heat-shock treatment (Sulston and Hodgkin, 1988: set up 3 plates, each containing 6 L4 stage hermaphrodites.

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Hook up with sexy hermaphrodite

The proctodeum houses prong-like structures called the spicules, two sensilla covered in a hard, sclerotic cuticle. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

The rays, hook, PCS and spicules have been shown to have specific roles in guiding the execution of male mating behavior (Male Intro FIG 3 and Male Intro MOVIE 1; Liu and Sternberg, 1995) (see also Male Neuronal Support Cells: Rays, Hook, Spicules and Post-cloacal Sensilla.

In contrast to the hermaphrodite, earlier descriptions of the connectivity of the male nervous system were only partial (Sulston et al., 1980).

Reconstruction of the whole male nervous system from serial EM sections as per the hermaphrodite (White et al., 1986; Hall and Russell, 1991), is currently under way (The Male Wiring Project).

Males differ from hermaphrodites in their expression of a number of behaviors including regulation of defecation (Reiner and Thomas, 1995), response to media conditioned by the same- versus opposite sex (Simon and Sternberg, 2002; White et al., 2003), mate-searching (Emmons and Lipton, 2003) and perhaps most striking of all, mating behavior (see Male Intro Fig 3; Male Intro MOVIE 1; Wormbook-Male Mating Behavior chapter; Emmons and Sternberg, 1997).

The sex-specific or sexually dimorphic cells underlying expression of some of these behaviors have been identified (Reiner and Thomas, 1995; Loer and Kenyon, 1993; Liu and Sternberg, 1995; Table 1- Emmons and Sternberg, 1997; Garcia et al., 2001).

Besides the large repertoire of behavior seen in hermaphrodites (foraging; feeding; defecation; dauer larva formation; sensory responses to touch, smell, taste, and temperature, social behavior, and learning and memory ) males display some other complex behaviors like male mating (Rankin, 2002; de Bono, 2003).

At hatching male larvae have the same cylindrical body form as hermaphrodites.

Also from L3 onwards, sex-specific differences become apparent in the tail that can be readily detected under the stereomicroscope (Male Intro FIG 5B).

In males the white or clear area at the tail tip starts to expand anteriorly and tail becomes increasingly swollen due to cell proliferation (Sulston and Horvitz, 1977; Sulston et al., 1980).

In hermaphrodites B does not divide and Y becomes the PDA neuron.

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