Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote "Sukarno was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood." After a chaotic period of parliamentary democracy, Sukarno established an autocratic system called "Guided Democracy" in 1957 that successfully ended the instability and rebellions which were threatening the survival of the diverse and fractious country.The early 1960s saw Sukarno veering Indonesia to the left by providing support and protection to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) to the irritation of the military and Islamists.
He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces.
Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas.
Thus the XXX Corps was raised and given the command of both new raisings and units and formations detached from I Corps, which was then dedicated to offensive tasks.
Since the beginnings of an anti-India insurgency in Kashmir, the Line of Control has been an active operational zone.
The spelling Soekarno, based on Dutch orthography, is still frequently used, mainly because he signed his name in the old spelling.
Sukarno himself insisted on a "u", not "oe", but said that he had been told in school to use the Dutch style.
He said that it was too difficult to change his signature, so still wrote it with an "oe".
Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, however, printed his name using the 1947 spelling.
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The vital area, which connects Pakistani Punjab and parts of Kashmir governed by India (extending from Jehlum to Narowal), has always been of strategic importance; the place was the site of major battles in both 19. That corps already had offensive duties and the task of defending this area was being neglected by the corps HQ.