For example, many people try to use to help prevent buffer overflows, but it is easy to use this function in the wrong way, as we discuss in Recipe 3.3.
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In a client-server architecture, for example, even if you wrote the client, the server should never assume it is talking to a trusted client. We have often seen situations in which people had a custom client-server application and the application developer assumed that, because the client was written in house by trusted, strong coders, there was nothing to worry about in terms of malicious data being injected.
Those kinds of assumptions lead people to do things that turn out badly, such as embedding in a client SQL queries or shell commands that get sent to a server and executed.
On the other hand, when you're checking input at the point before you use it, it's often easy to forget to perform the check.
Most of the time, you will want to make life easier by producing your own wrapper API to do the filtering, but sometimes you might forget to call it or end up calling it improperly.
In such a scenario, an attacker who is good at reverse engineering can replace the SQL code in the client-side binary with malicious SQL code (perhaps code that reads private records or deletes important data).
The attacker could also replace the actual client with a handcrafted client.At the very least, make sure data is filtered on input.Match constructs that are known to be valid and harmless. In addition, be sure to be skeptical about any data coming from a potentially insecure channel.For example, an access control mechanism might determine whether a user has the right to use your application to send email.If the user has that privilege, and your software calls out to the shell to send email (which is generally a bad idea), the user should not be able to manipulate the data in such a way that he can do anything other than send mail as intended.Let's look at basic rules for proper data validation.