The roughly 3 million foreign-born Muslims in France are largely from France’s former colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
, I mean institutional arrangements such that religious authority and religious reasons for action and political authority and political reasons for action are distinguished - so, political authority does not rest on religious authority and the latter does not dominate political authority.
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Dessert choices, including baklava fingers, at the 13th annual multicultural Ramadan event, held at the GE Global Research campus in Niskayuna, NY on June 3, 2015, for Muslim and non-Muslim GE families.
The interfaith event was held before the start of Ramadan.
Photo by Sirin Hamsho (GE Power & Water division) Active RNS subscribers and members can view this content by logging-in here.(RNS) More companies are making efforts to accommodate the religious needs of their Muslim workers.
But some businesses are going the extra mile to host events that celebrate the monthlong fast.
Awareness of this multicultural challenge to secularism is not due to terrorism - it began to manifest itself and was perceived before events such as 9/11.
Nor is it due to the fact that some Muslims, unlike other post-immigration groups, may have been involved in rowdy demonstrations and riots, because others (such as African-Caribbeans in Britain) have done so without raising such profound normative questions.
However, the majority of respondents in the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and the Netherlands gave Muslims a favorable rating. While 47% of Germans on the political right give Muslims an unfavorable rating, just 17% on the left do so.
The gap between left and right is also roughly 30 percentage points in Italy and Greece.
This is not to say that religion has disappeared or is about to, but for many it has become more in the form of "belief without belonging" or mere "spirituality" or "implicit religion." For example, while belief in a personal God has gone down from over 40% in the middle of the twentieth century to less than 30% by its end, belief in a spirit or life source has remained steady at around 35-40% and belief in the soul has actually increased from less than 60% in the early 1980s to over 70% today.
All these changes, however, are highly compatible with political secularism, if not with scientism or other rationalistic philosophies.
As of 2010, there were 4.8 million Muslims in Germany (5.8% of the country’s population) and 4.7 million Muslims in France (7.5%).