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In fact, there are examples galore reflecting the attitudes and beliefs held by a particular group towards others whose dietary customs seem alien to them. For Hebrews the Italians are loksh ('noodle') and both Japanese and Chinese are often seen as rice-eaters.
For example, the Germans refer to their Dutch neighbors as Käseköpfe (i. 'cheesehead'); whereas the British speak of the French as frogs, who, in turn see the latter as rosbif (i. The Mexicans resort to types of bread, bolillo ('bun') and cracker, when dealing with white people but the Portuguese prefer the chewing coca.
Fruits such as apple and 香蕉 ('banana') appear to be the choices of US and Chinese when referring to Native Americans and Chinese people grown up in a Western country, respectively.
More explicit comparisons with food can be seen in fixed expressions that associate a particular nationality with an eating or drinking habit.
These include the purpose and stylistic conventions of the genre in which the metaphor occurs and the circumstances under which the text is composed and read.
Differing functional motivations are suggested for the use of identity metaphors in each of the genres considered.
However, conversational differences between experienced and inexperienced online chat users were, on the whole, similar across conditions.
More generally, online chat appeared to produce less sequential connectivity, greater self-focus, and less other-focus than did face-to-face conversation.
Taking a pragmatic approach founded in the cooperative principle, it argues that the maxims of quality and relation play related but separable roles in the interpretation of identity metaphors; and that this process is guided and constrained by cotextual selections in the environment of the metaphorical term.
The particular kinds of cotextual guidance provided by the writer are seen to vary according to genre-driven issues.
This article investigates metaphors of identity in dating ads and in two types of newspaper writing, 'hard' and 'soft' news articles.