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The water trapped in the soil doesn't freeze completely even below 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius).The top layer of the ground, known as the active layer, thaws in the summer and refreezes in the winter, and it experiences a kind of sandwiching effect as it freezes.Permafrost and clathrates degrade on warming, thus large releases of methane from these sources may arise as a result of global warming.

A wide array of scientific disciplines and industries use radiocarbon analyses; for example, it is used in dating of archaeological specimens and in forensic identification of human and wildlife tissues, including traded ivory.

Over the next century, fossil fuel emissions will produce a large amount of CO Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology.

There is another possible mechanism for rapid methane release.

As the Arctic Ocean becomes more and more ice free, the ocean absorbs more of the incident energy from the sun.

As the air rises, the dew point is reached and clouds form, releasing latent heat and further reinforcing the buoyancy of the air over the ocean.

All this results in air being drawn from the south across the tundra rather than the present situation of cold air flowing toward the south from the cold sinking air over the Arctic Ocean.Near the bottom of the first sinkhole, air contained unusually high concentrations of methane, according to tests conducted by the researchers.According to researchers at Norway's Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate (CAGE), through a process called geothermal heat flux, the Siberian permafrost which extends to the seabed of the Kara Sea, a section of the Arctic Ocean between the Yamal Peninsula and Novaya Zemlya, is thawing.The extra heat being drawn from the south further accelerates the warming of the permafrost and the Arctic Ocean with increased release of methane.Sinkholes discovered in the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia, Russia beginning in July 2014 are believed by Russian researchers to have been caused by methane released due to permafrost thawing.While a long-term natural process, it is exacerbated by global warming.

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