He deals with these points of the compass and the Equinoxes and Solstices in quite some length preceding this part of Of these, especially the Bull (Taurus), the Lion (Leo), the Scorpion (Scorpio, but in good symbolism the Eagle) and the Man (Aquarius) are to be noted as forming the Kerubic figures of Ezekiel and John.
To these Signs are allotted the tribes of Ephraim, Judah, Dan and Reuben, who, as we shall presently see, encamped towards the Cardinal Points around the Tabernacle of the Congregation, and as the leaders of the others.
Dan, bearing as his device a Scorpion, he compares to the Cerastes or horned Serpent, synonymous in astrological language with the vulture or pouncing eagle; and which bird was often substituted on the flag of Dan, in place of the venomous scorpion, on account of the terror which that reptile inspired, as the symbol of Typhon and his malign influences; wherefore the Eagle, as its paranatellon, that is, rising and setting at the same time with it, was naturally used in its stead.
Manasseh was divided into two half tribes with separate possessions (being the only tribe thus divided), and thus answers to the equal division of the Sign of the Twins, Castor and Pollux, the Great Twin Brethren.
Simeon and Levi are classed together, like the two Fishes in the Sign, but Levi is withdrawn later, to form as it were the binding and connecting link of the Tribes, as the priestly caste.
Mathers surely drew heavily on this part of Pike’s book for his lecture on the Twelve Tribes.
He also, as do Albert Pike in the above quoted book, refer to the encampment of the Tribes around the Tabernacle in the Wilderness as explained in Numbers of the Old Testament, as seen in this diagram (aligned with the top towards the East): Here I would like to return to the above mentioned quotation by Albert Pike where I made some spontaneous observations: Aquarius (Reuben) is attributed to the Winter Solstice at the South (i.e.
from 1871 Albert Pike presents an identical arrangement to that of Mathers and even corroborates his explanations.
In his chapter about the 25° of the Scottish Rite Pike gives a rather lengthy explanation of the mythos surrounding Astrological symbolism, and says thus regarding the Twelve Tribes of Israel: There is an astonishing coincidence between the characteristics assigned by Jacob to his sons, and those of the signs of the Zodiac, or the planets that have their domicile in those signs.
Reuben is represented with mandrakes, a sun, or flowing water; Simeon with with a fortified city or a sword; Levi with the seven branched candlestick (menorah) or the breast plate of the high priest; Judah with the lion or a crown; Dan with a set of scales or a snake (sometimes in combination); Naphthali with a hind; Gad with a camp; Ashur with an olive tree (sometimes shewn as a palm tree) or a goblet; Issachar by a sun and moon, a book scroll, or an ass; Zebulon with a ship; Joseph with grapes of wine, a unicorn, ox, palm tree, or ear of wheat; Manasseh with grapes of wine or a unicorn; Ephraim with an ox or a palm tree; and lastly Benjamin with a wolf, altar of burnt offering, or a set of eating utensils.
Notice the similarities between the symbols of Joseph and his sons Manasseh and Ephraim, who succeded him and inherited his ensigns.
Contrary to this view the great Masonic scholar Kenneth Mac Kenzie presents another arrangement and assignment of the Zodiacal Signs in his from 1877, which follows the order of the Zodiac as related to the traditional order of birth of the sons of Jacob (including Levi and Joseph), viz.