Some of the towering achievements in computer science have been in the creation of brilliantly clever, efficient, and useful algorithms such as Quicksort, Huffman Compression, the Fast Fourier Transform, and the Monte Carlo method, all reasonably simple (but not obvious) methods of accomplishing precisely specified tasks on potentially huge amounts of precisely specified data.Alongside such computational challenges there has been the dream of artificial intelligence: to get computers to think.
The second FOREACH loop goes through that list of unique words, looking for the one that has the largest count.
After determining the most commonly occurring word, it prints the word and the number of occurrences.
cauldrons of processing power, but they’re also stupid.
They are the undisputed chess champions of the world, but they can’t understand a simple English conversation.
Alan Turing, the analytical genius who broke the German ENIGMA code during World War II and formulated some of the fundamental principles of computer science, famously proposed a “test” for whether a computer was intelligent: could it, in text-only conversation, convince a person that it was human?
Turing predicted in 1950 that a computer would have at least 128 megabytes of memory and be able to pass his test with reasonable frequency by the year 2000.
They found that by analyzing the topology of the web—which pages link to other pages—computers could roughly determine the most “interesting” and “relevant” pages .
The importance of a page about Sergei Prokofiev could be determined, in part, from the number of pages that linked to it with the link text “Sergei Prokofiev.” And in part from the importance of those other pages vis-à-vis Prokofiev.
As spam pages increased on the web, this problem grew worse.