It is the 33rd largest country in the world in terms of area with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles).Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre-long (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively.
), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia.
It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people.
Pakistan has the sixth largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, being the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world, to have that status.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector, and a growing services sector.
The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.
Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and military force projection by East India Company of British Empire led it to increasingly flex its military muscle; a factor that was crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the subcontinent by 1765 and sidelining the European competitors.The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire.Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries as it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution which established a Federal Government based in Islamabad alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status – which consists of four provinces and four federal territories.The Constitution also states that all laws are to conform with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.The Pakistani economy is the 24th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the 41st largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank).