The validity of documentary evidence is of paramount interest in many different types of litigation.
The medical record which is found to contain additions or interlineations can challenge the veracity of witnesses.
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The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing.
The Last Will and Testament which is found to contain an ink formulation not commercially available until years after the supposed preparation date can prove the fraudulence of the instrument.
The diary maintained by a victim of sexual harassment may be proven authentic as a contemporaneous record of events through analysis of the ink.
It is used for the characterization of toner materials and can give information regarding the age of xerographically produced documents.
Thin Layer Chromatography is a separation technique ideally suited to the characterization of ink, carbon, typewriter ink and other materials containing colored components.
This methodology is useful for the determination of line sequence and the characterization of surface features such as staple marks, creases in paper or other irregularities in the paper surface.
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is an atomic spectroscopy which is capable of elemental and molecular information.
TLC is used routinely to differentiate between ink formulations and to identify the specific manufacture of an ink which appears on a questioned document.